Vulnerabilidades del sistema

System vulnerabilities in Cybersecurity


To implement an effective cybersecurity strategy, it is essential to discover and control system vulnerabilities in addition to having barrier-type protection tools.

The risk to institutions and companies, regardless of their size, in terms of cybersecurity is becoming increasingly evident. Recently, we have witnessed numerous attacks of various kinds, both on public institutions and private organizations in any sector, including some critical ones, such as health. Knowing the vulnerabilities that can affect organizations and institutions is the first step to carrying out a proactive cybersecurity strategy capable of preventing and defending.

What vulnerabilities can I have?

There are two types of vulnerabilities: those that directly affect the organization’s system and those that affect corporate factors outside the system, such as brand reputation, intellectual property, etc.

This post will discuss the most common vulnerabilities affecting the corporate system.

It should be borne in mind that the ability of each of them to become a threat will depend on multiple factors Therefore, when assessing its severity, it will be necessary to consider the particularity of each vulnerability concerning the organization, the sector, the market, etc. Even if, at first glance, some seem objectively more severe than others, as can be the case of a database exposed in front of a leaked commercial PDF.

What is a system vulnerability?

A system vulnerability is a weakness or flaw within our information system that poses a security risk. This is a weakness that configuration flaws, design flaws, or procedural flaws can cause.

This security “hole” represents an entry point for cybercriminals, who exploit the vulnerability to enter the organization’s system and compromise its availability, integrity, and confidentiality.

Therefore, keeping our systems secure is vital, finding these vulnerabilities as soon as possible, and fixing them to avoid these risks.

Differences between Vulnerability and Threat in Cybersecurity

As mentioned, vulnerabilities are flaws and security “holes” in our system. Threats are those actions carried out by cybercriminals who take advantage of these vulnerabilities.

So, they are different things. Vulnerability is the security breach, while threat is the action that exploits the security breach.

Generally, when vulnerabilities appear, there will always be someone who will try to exploit them.

Types of Vulnerabilities that may affect the system

  • SQL Injection Vulnerabilities

These vulnerabilities occur when SQL code that was not part of the programmed code is inserted. This technique alters the operation of a database.

The attacker’s hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unwanted commands or accessing data without proper authorization.

  • Authentication vulnerabilities

These are flaws related to input data validation that allow attackers to access our system.

One crucial point here is passwords. Using insecure passwords makes systems vulnerable and, if easily cracked, can lead to incursions by unauthorized third parties.

  • Data exposed to vulnerabilities

Many web applications and APIs do not adequately protect sensitive data, such as financial, health, and personal information. Attackers can steal or modify this weakly protected data to commit credit card fraud, identity theft, or other crimes.

  • Configuration vulnerabilities

Software or server configuration errors cause these types of vulnerabilities. It can lead to system disabling or other more powerful attacks, such as a DoS attack.

Other types of configurations are related to security, such as open cloud storage, misconfigured HTTP headers, and so on.

All operating systems, frameworks, libraries, and applications should be configured securely and patched/updated promptly.

  • XSS (Cross Site Scripting) Vulnerabilities

This type of vulnerability is characterised by allowing scripts from languages such as VBScript or Javascript to be executed. XSS flaws occur when an application includes untrusted data on a page without proper validation or escaping.

By executing these scripts, cybercriminals can hijack user sessions. An example of such attacks can be phishing to steal passwords and data.

  • Component-related vulnerabilities

Components, such as libraries, frameworks, and other software modules, run with the same privileges as the application.

If any of these components have a vulnerability, an attack could result in loss of data or access to the server.


These are some of the vulnerabilities we commonly find in the systems of organizations and institutions. The continuous evolution of cyberattacks means that new vulnerabilities are constantly emerging. For this reason, organizations must have proactive cybersecurity solutions based on the latest technologies, complementing merely defensive barrier solutions, enabling them to detect and monitor vulnerabilities early.